The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the informal notion of "thickness". A liquid whose viscosity is less than that of water is sometimes known as a mobile liquid, while a substance with a viscosity substantially greater than water is called a viscous liquid.
The dynamic (shear) viscosity of a fluid expresses its resistance to shearing flows, where adjacent layers move parallel to each other with different speeds
The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the pascal-second (Pa·s), (equivalent to (N·s)/m2, or kg/(m·s)). Water at 20°C has a viscosity of 0.001002 Pa·s, while a typical motor oil could have a viscosity of about 0.250 Pa·s.
The cgs physical unit for dynamic viscosity is the poise. It is more commonly expressed, particularly in ASTM standards, as centipoise (cP). Water at 20°C has a viscosity of 1.0020 cP.
Rotational viscometers use the idea that the torque required to turn an object in a fluid is a function of the viscosity of that fluid. They measure the torque required to rotate a disk or bob in a fluid at a known speed.
Viscosity of fluids with variable compositions:
Viscosity of liquids: (at 25 °C unless otherwise specified)
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